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 Tape movement
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 ENJOY THE JOURNEY!This is a view of the cartridge with the top removed.  It is oriented as if you had just inserted it into your player.When you insert the tape, the capstan in the machine (a rotating steel post about 1/4" in diameter) presses against theROLLER, turning it clockwise which then pulls tape from the center of the reel.This action also causes the HUB to rotate clockwise, which in turn takes up the "used" tape onto the outside of the reel.  In this fashion, a tape will play continuously, never stopping.This is a fine arrangement, butis mathematically impossible.However, a few little tricks make it such that the laws of Physics can be fooled, which unfortunately means you will need to do some babysitting.YOU DID HAVE YOURFOIL SPLICES AND PADSREPLACED OF COURSE!
 The first problem:
 The problem is that we are trying to remove, then replace tape - onto objects with different diameters (i.e., the inside and outside of the reel).  Let's say the hub is 1.5 inches in diameter, and the outside of the reel is 2.5 inches in diameter.Using the simple math formula for circumference (3.14 X diameter), we can then say the circumference is equal to a length of tape.  So, for each revolution of the hub, we are pulling 4.71 inches of tape out, but the outside of the reel is actually pulling 7.85 inches of tape back on.  And this is a short tape.  If it were a bit longer, it would betaking up more than TWICE AS MUCH tape as it was giving out!Obviously, this is impossible without doing a little head-scratching and cheating.  In a very short time, the tape would be wound so tightly that it would refuse to move.
 The first solution:
 In order for this scheme to work, the tape needs to be able to SLIDE between layers, and also slide on the hub.  This prevents the tape from binding and being woundtoo tightly.  The tape is wound somewhat loosely during manufacture, and is also treated with a lubricant - usually graphite.You'll see a silvery band on your tape rollers - this is graphite lubricant.You must always keep your tape rollers clean, and free of this lubricant !
 The second problem:
 As you may have guessed by now, having graphite on your rollers (and thus the capstan in your machine) is very much like going out to your car, raising the hood andpouring oil on all your drive belts.  Long story short, they won't grip like they need to, and your car won't run properly for very long.  By the same token, your machine won't grip the rollers properly.  This results in dragging, speed variations, or no tape movement at all.  Since this is inherent in the design of the 8 track format (the only tape format that has this flaw), it is not a defect of recent repairs (especially by me!), but is rather a minor maintenance procedurethat must be performed by all owners and users of 8 track machines and tapes.
 The second solution:
 Hub
 Tapepulledfromcenterofreel
 "Used"tape istakenup ontheoutsideof thereel
 Roller
 Capstanrotates CCW,turning rollerand hub CW
 Track change switch
 Capstan
 Let's open the door and look inside:
 You must always keep your tape rollers clean, and free of this lubricantYou don't have to take the tapes apart to clean the rollers
 Keep in mind that almost ALL 8 track tapes will need a NEW foil splice and pressurepad before they will play properly.  Always check your player with a known good,RECENTLY REPAIRED tape before determining the need for professional service
 Sharpturn whichcausesthe foilspliceto comeoff dueto itsaged,brittleadhesive
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 NOTE:  Properly maintained, 8 track machines do not eat tapes!  This is caused by breakageof the foil splice on the tape itself.  It is absolutely essential that any 8 track tape has a newfoil splice and pressure pad before attempting to play it.  To understand why, see the yellow textbox in the upper left corner of the above illustration.   We also offer quality TAPE REPAIR.
 4783 N. Glenrosa CirclePrescott Valley, AZ  86314928-533-9666E-mail:  Barry8Track@cableone.net
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 After Repairs - Maintaining Your Machine and Tapes